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During the Middle Ages, usury, or lending money for interest, was considered a sin by the Catholic Church.
As soon as Richard I left to join the Crusade in 1190, riots began again throughout England.Riots were started and mobs threw stones at the Jews and burned the straw roofs of their houses.Many Jews were murdered, some allowed themselves to be baptized.In 1130, the Jews were fined 2,000 pounds on the charge that a Jew had killed a sick man.The first record of Jews in Oxford is from 1141 when they were caught in the political infighting of two sides warring for the throne.They played a vital role in maintaining the British treasury and, for a time, the Crown watched over the Jewish financiers and their property, though they also taxed them onerously.
Disputes between Christian clerics and Jews in this period were supposedly encouraged by William Rufus (1087-1100).They generally lived in segregated areas by themselves.However, until 1177 only one Jewish cemetery was allowed to be established in London.On March 16, the citadel was captured and those Jews left alive were murdered.The mob then stole the records of debts to Jews from a nearby cathedral and burned them.Once Jews returned in the 16 century, however, they became more and more integrated into society.