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Beneficial owner; rights offering; stockholders have records inspection rights after corporation merger; neither record holders nor beneficial holders need have an actual economic interest in stock to have inspection rights. Investment Co; A limited partner who is not also a general partner is not liable for the obligations of the limited partnership unless he takes part in the control of the business. Jerez; Under Utah law, documents that provide for the acquisition, mortgage, or disposition of property of the LLC are binding on the LLC if they are signed by a manager; limited liability company. In imposing new sentence upon defendant whose original sentence has been set aside, trial judge may consider events subsequent to first trial and may impose sentence that is greater or less than original sentence. Habeas corpus; ineffective assistance of counsel; nolo contendere. establishes a bank's standard of care for the processing of checks but does not preempt common law tort claims regarding communications about the processing of checks. IPO; initial public offering; when the board of directors cannot be expected, due to self interest, to determine whether to initiate legal proceedings against the corporation, it would be futile for the shareholders to make a demand before filing suit. An appellate court should not review a district court sentencing departure decision de novo but instead should ask whether the sentencing court abused its discretion. The manifest necessity requirement, which authorizes granting a mistrial in a criminal case and precludes the defendant from successfully raising a plea of double jeopardy, is met when the indictment is insufficient to charge a crime. Continuing offense; separate and distinct offenses, even if of the same nature, do not constitute a continuing offense, such as two sales of narcotics to the same purchaser, but at different times. A review of the sufficiency of the evidence to support a criminal conviction requires a determination as to whether the record evidence could reasonably support a finding of guilt beyond a "reasonable doubt" standard. Maliciously requires a showing that the defendant acted with an actual intent to cause the particular kind of harm done or that the particular kind of harm might result from his actions. Jury instructions that, by conclusive presumption or misleading directions, shift the burden of proof on an essential element of the crime to the defendant violate the Due Process Clause. When common sense and experience suggest defendant must have known or been aware of a high probability of existence of a fact, the jury may infer his knowledge as element of crime charged. Application of simple negligence standard in criminal proceedings does not violate Due Process Clause; governmental interests deterring similar future conduct outweigh infringement personal freedom. When, by statute, recklessness is established without existence of actual danger, defendant may not escape liability because he was without power to cause danger to his victim. Unconsciousness is an affirmative defense requiring defendant to prove beyond reasonable doubt that mental element of crime is negated by his unconsciousness. To establish first-degree murder, premeditation must be proved by evidence that defendant considered his decision to kill for some period of time before act of killing.

Initio Partners; In corporate litigation, the court may order the payment of counsel fees and related expenses to a plaintiff whose efforts resulted in the creation of a common fund or the conferring of a corporate benefit. Elevator Co., Inc.; Benefits accruing for services rendered prior to the bankruptcy petition ordinarily relate back to the date of the services but "retiree benefits" under the Bankruptcy Code have a priority claim. De Wolff, Boberg & Associates, Inc.; Although no remedy is available for individual injuries in defined contribution plan, individuals may recover for fiduciary breaches that impair the value of plan assets in the participant's individual account. Sixth amendment confrontation clause demands, for an out of court statement to be admitted into evidence, the witness must be unavailable and defendant must have prior opportunity to cross examine the declarant. The confrontation clause is not violated by the admission of a nontestifying codefendant confession, with proper limiting instruction, when the confession is redacted to eliminate defendant name and any reference to her existence. Under the fifth amendment, a prosecutor may not comment on a defendant s decision not to testify at his trial and the court may not instruct the jury that the defendant's silence is evidence of his guilt. The fifth amendment protection against double jeopardy bars trial of an acquitted defendant on another charge unless the prior acquittal was based on evidence other than that involved in the second prosecution. Person who has been held in criminal contempt for committing criminal offense may not be criminally prosecuted for committing underlying offense if prosecution for the criminal offense does not require proof of different facts. A penalty will implicate the double jeopardy clause only if there was a legislative intent that the penalty be criminal in nature and if the statutory scheme is so punitive as to make the remedy criminal. A judge may not increase a sentence beyond the maximum allowed for an offense based on facts not proven at trial or admitted as a part of the guilty plea. In order to challenge a death sentence on the basis of racial discrimination, a defendant must show either a discriminatory purpose in his case or a discriminatory purpose in enacting or maintaining the death penalty. Under the eighth amendment, bail must be reasonably fixed to ensure a defendant will appear at trial based on the specific facts of the crime charged and not the character of the crime. If have probable cause to believe automobile contains articles that they may be entitled to seize, may search the vehicle pursuant to lawful arrest, without warrant, or impound vehicle into police custody to search at later time. Voluntary consent of any joint occupant of a residence to search the premises jointly occupied is valid against the co-occupant, permitting evidence discovered in the search to be used against the latter at a criminal trial. A secured party may not recover a deficiency judgment if sale of the collateral was commercially unreasonable, but the debtor may recover damages for the creditor's failure to comply with legal requirements for a sale. In re Toshiba America HD DVD Marketing and Sales Practices Litigation; express warranty is not created by mere puffery; a statement about future performance may create express warranty if it is an affirmation or representation. Disbar for alcohol abuse; attorney substance abuse; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics and professional responsibility; CLE; Continuing Legal Education. Jaffari; a limited liability company is bound by the operating agreement signed by some members and that defines the LLC's governance and operation, even if the LLC itself did not sign. Geist; A manager of an LLC has the apparent authority to bind the LLC when he executes in its name an instrument for carrying on, in the usual way, its business or affairs. peremptory challenge; batson challenge; strike in camera. Professional ethics; ethics lawyer; lawyer ethics; legal ethics issues; attorney substance abuse and drug addiction; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; Mandatory Continuing Legal Education. The admission at trial of hearsay statements does not violate confrontation clause as long as declarant is unavailable and statements are sufficiently reliable, based either on firmly rooted hearsay exception or other showings of trustworthiness. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Multi-level protection of executive officers from removal is contrary to Article II of the Constitution's vesting of the executive power in the President; Sarbanes-Oxley; inferior officers Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians v. Thomas; when services provided by shareholders and their counsel result in a financial benefit to the corporation, they are entitled to a fair fee. Underwriters performing a due-diligence investigation of two bond offerings by World Com, had a limited number of conversations with the stock issuer and its auditor, made only cursory inquiries, failed to look behind formulaic answers to questions. First Derivative Traders; For purposes of Rule 10b-5, the maker of a false statement is the person who has the ultimate authority over the statement, including content and distribution. Independent source doctrine applies to both evidence obtained for the first time during independent lawful search, and also to evidence initially discovered during, or as consequence of unlawful search, but later discovered independently. A buyer of goods, who gives value for the goods and receives them after the certificate of title is issued, takes the goods free of a security interest perfected in another jurisdiction. Patchak; suits under the APA must satisfy both Article III's standing requirement and be arguably within the zone of interests protected or regulated by the violated statute. Harris; Amending agency interpretation; when agency gives regulation a definitive agency interpretation, significant revisions require notice and comment under the APA. Duff & Phelps, Inc.; If a closely held company withholds from an employee-stockholder material information about possible increases in stock value in breach of its fiduciary duty, the employee-stockholder may be entitled to damages. M & F Worldwide Corp.; business judgment standard of review governs going private mergers with a controlling stockholder if independent special committee and informed vote of a majority of the minority stockholders. Oklahoma Alcoholic Beverage Laws Enforcement Commission; the type of business entity chosen may affect the types of business that can be conducted by the entity if it affect the licenses the entity may obtain. Ritter; In the absence of red flags alerting corporate directors to misconduct, good faith is measured by the directors' actions to assure that a reasonable reporting and information system exists. Underwriters performing a due-diligence investigation of two bond offerings by World Com, had a limited number of conversations with the stock issuer and its auditor, made only cursory inquiries, failed to look behind formulaic answers to questions. Colkitt; Under § 29(b) of the Securities Act of 1934, party may rescind contract that, when made or as performed, violates federal securities laws; convertible debenture; debenture; rescission; scienter. National Australia Bank, Ltd.; Subject matter jurisdiction in a fraud case exists if conduct in the United States was more than merely preparatory to fraud, and directly caused losses to foreign investors abroad; extraterritorial jurisdiction Business Roundtable v. WPCS Int'l Inc; A beneficial owner's acquisition of securities directly from an issuer, at the issuer's request and with the board's approval, is a "purchase" of those securities under Section 16(b). Right against self incrimination; right to counsel. When Congress mandates a specific definition of a statutory term, an agency cannot interpret the meaning of the term differently under its regulations. Twombly; sufficient factual allegations required for Fed. Judicial impartiality is not a compelling enough interest to justify suppressing candidates views, government regulations that supress speech on the basis of its content must be narrowly tailored, first amendment. Nontestimonial evidence obtained as a result of a defendant s voluntary statement given without the benefit of miranda warnings need not be excluded at the defendant's trial; fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine. Crossmedia Services, Inc.; when a benefit is offered subject to stated conditions, and the offeree takes the benefit with knowledge of the terms of the offer, the taking constitutes acceptance of the terms.

In-house counsel may bring a common-law action for retaliatory discharge resulting compliance with Code of Professional Responsibility provision that represents a clear and definitive statement of public policy. Sweet; plaintiff in a transactional malpractice action must show that but for the alleged malpractice, it is more likely than not that plaintiff would have obtained a more favorable result; but-for causation. In re Primus; when freedom of association is involved, the state must demonstrate a compelling subordinating interest, and that the means employed is closely drawn to avoid unnecessary abridgement of associational freedoms. Carona; the government may use deception in its investigations in order to induce suspects into making incriminating statements, even if reprensented by an attorney. CERCLA authorizes contribution for environmental cleanup costs from other responsible parties only when the party seeking contribution has been sued under CERCLA 106 or 107(a). The EPA authority under the Clean Air Act includes the power to mandate the inclusion of emissions-control designations in pre-construction permits AND the power to determine whether the designations are in accord with the provisions of the Act. Jayco, Inc.; summary judgment testimony usually form of an affidavit or sworn statement even if a court's consideration of inadmissible evidence is in error, such error is harmless it if does not affect any party's substantial rights. Eminent domain, inverse condemnation, just compensation, ripeness, taking, environmental concerns justify limitations on development, when a regulation denies all economically beneficial or productive use of property. Eminent domain, just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property for use by other private citizens pursuant to a carefully considered economic development plan intended for a public purpose are valid under the Fifth Amendment. Heller; Words and phrases in the Constitution are to be interpreted according to their normal and ordinary meanings as understood when the provision in question was adopted; second amendment. Freedom from Religion Foundation; Taxpayers have standing to bring Establishment Clause challenges to a federal expenditure only if that expenditure is made pursuant to an explicit congressional authorization; establishment clause. Raich; Medical marijuana; Prescription marijuana; THC; Congress may regulate intrastate activity if there is a rational basis for concluding that the activity may have a substantial effect on interstate commerce; necessary and proper clause. Georgia; The enforcement power in the Fourteenth Amendment gives Congress the power to create a private right of action for violations of the Amendment; Americans with Disabilities Act; sovereign immunity. CSuspicionless drug testing of public school students involved in extracurricular activities is reasonable means of furthering schools interest in preventing and deterring drug use. If law enforcement officers have reason to believe individual giving consent to search has authority over premises to be searched, then entry will be validated even if it is later determined that person did not have authority to consent. Indigent misdemeanor defendant is entitled to appointed counsel at criminal trial when suspended sentence of imprisonment may later be enforced upon revocation of probation. Criminal defendant does not have constitutional right to appointed counsel to assist in pursuing discretionary appeal in state court or petition for certiorari in supreme court of united states. For purposes of Miranda, interrogation occurs when police either expressly question suspect in custody or engage in any actions or dialogue that police should know is reasonably likely to elicit incriminating response from suspect. Ed Stefanko; Contract provisions requiring the issuance of an injunction are not binding on the trial court; granting or denying a preliminary injunction rests within the trial court's equitable discretion, Hall Street Associates, L. The Reform Act provides a three-part process for identifying the lead plaintiff in a class action lawsuit: notice; greatest financial stake in the outcome of the controversy; Rule 23 requirements of typicality and adequacy. The substantive fairness of a class action settlement and attorney's fees depends on: (1) the complexity, expense, and duration of the litigation; (2) the reaction of the class to the settlement; (3) the stage of the proceedings and the extent of discover If a board is pursuing a merger for strategic reasons, it may decline to entertain a competing bid that may yield a higher short-term gain for its shareholders in favor of a merger that ensures greater long-range gains. Delaware General Corporation Law 144 provides a safe harbor for interested transactions if the material facts as to the director\'s relationship or interests as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known and majority of disinterested direct Abry Partners V, L. One who inflicts an injury upon another that results in death cannot avoid liability because the victim could have taken better care of himself or herself. The sec, enjoin negligent conduct resulting in securities law violations, the securities and exchange commission, evidence of past negligence, substantial likelihood of future violations of federal securities laws. Ikanos Communications, Inc.; management has duty to make disclosure when a trend, demand, commitment, event, or uncertainty is both presently known and reasonably likely to have material effects on registrant. Apuzzo; to hold an aider and abettor liable for securities law violations, must show underlying violation that defendant knew about, provided substantial assistance, by participating, and by action. In re Novartis Wage & Hour Litigation; Per the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) overtime-pay exemption, "outside salesmen" facilitate the transfer of title to goods; "administrative employees" exercise discretion and independent judgment. Hillsides, Inc.; violation of common law tort of intrusion is intentional intrusion into a place, conversation, or matter plaintiff has a reasonable expectation of privacy, in a manner highly offensive to a reasonable person. Quon; Even when employee has reasonable expectation of privacy in workplace, government employer does not violate Fourth Amendment when it invades the employee's privacy for a legitimate work-related reason. In re American Housing Foundation, Debtor; After an employer's bankruptcy case commences, an employer is only obligated to pay for unused vacation time if the right to payment is specifically expressed in its employment contract with the employee. Residential visitors, who are on the premises for only a short time and who claim no connection to the host other than to transact business, have no legitimate expectation of privacy in the premises under the fourth amendment. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine; independent source rule; the fourth amendment prohibits use of evidence obtained by an illegal search and seizure, and evidence obtained as a result of that constitutional violation unless independent source. Caddy; Due process is satisfied when the defendant has performed some act or consummated some transaction within the forum or has otherwise purposefully availed himself of the privileges of conducting business in the forum. Executive privilege does not shield the president from the judicial process, recognized claim of privilege, due process considerations, criminal trial, executive immunity, in camera inspection, speech or debate clause. Bush; In cases of undue delay, federal courts may entertain an enemy combatant's habeas corpus petition even before the Combatant Status Review Tribunal has had a chance to review his status. EPA; Standing; A litigant Congress has accorded a procedural right to protect his concrete interests (right to challenge agency action unlawfully withheld) can assert that right without meeting standards for redressability and immediacy. City of Chicago Individual self defense is the central component of the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms and is deeply rooted in the nation's history and tradition. Homeless living in vehicle still subject to the automobile vehicle search exception to the warrant requirement; warrantless searches of readily movable vehicles are not unreasonable when probable cause supports the search. Lake Shore Investors; damages for tortious contractual interference may include pecuniary loss of the benefits of the contract; consequential losses; emotional distress and actual harm to reputation, and punitive damages. Darue Engineering & Manufacturing; The national interest in providing a federal forum for federal tax litigation is sufficiently substantial to support the exercise of federal question jurisdiction. Carey; Rule 9(b)'s requirement of pleading fraud with particularity must be harmonized with Fed. Difficultion negotiation; positional bargaining; positional negotiation; Fisher and Ury; principled negotiation; non-adversarial bargaining; negotiation tactics; negotiation skills; negotiation strategies; negotiaiton techniques. United States; When an average person applying contemporary community standards feels that the dominant theme, taken as a whole, appeals to purient interests, the government can regulate the material as obscene. Noise ordinances advance a substantial government goal, limit speech, protect a legitimate government interest, content based, foreclose alternate avenues of communication; least restrictive intrusive. Williams; An award of punitive damages based on a desire to punish the defendant for harming persons not before the court is an unconstitutional taking of property without due process. Carhart; Laws that place restrictions on abortion that express respect for the life of the unborn are valid, if laws do not unduly burden a woman's right to obtain an abortion; as-applied challenge; overbreadth doctrine; void for vagueness. Marion County Election Board; Evenhanded restrictions on the right to vote that are related to voter qualifications and that protect the integrity and reliability of the electoral process are valid. Gonzales; An individual who has obtained a restraining order against another does not have a constitutionally protected property interest in the enforcement when there is probable cause to believe it was violated. Forum for Academic & Institutional Rights, Inc; Conditioning the receipt of federal funds on allowing military recruiters to have access to a college campus does not violate the First Amendment; freedom of association. Sorrell; Limits on campaign contributions may not be set so low as to magnify the advantages of incumbency and prevent a candidate from raising sufficient funds to mount an effective campaign; stare decisis. In re Marriage Cases; gay rights; impermissible to treat gay individuals and same-sex couples any differently than heterosexual individuals and opposite-sex couples; compelling-state-interest-test; strict scrutiny; suspect class. Black; A state statute banning cross burning with the intent to intimidate another person is not unconstitutional, but the establishment of criminal intent from the prohibited act itself violates the First Amendment; content-based restriction. Hibbs; State governments are liable for money damages for interfering or restraining state employees' exercise of their rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. EPA; For standing, a litigant must ordinarily demonstrate it has suffered concrete and particularized injury that is either actual or imminent, fairly traceable to defendant, and a likelihood that a favorable decision would redress injury Boumediene v. Search incident to lawful arrest does not include the search of a house when the arrest occurred outside of the house; search must be substantially contemporaneous with the arrest and confined to the immediate vicinity of the arrest. Administrative Prodecure Act National Park Hospitality Ass'n v. Ahmanson & Co.; Majority shareholders have a fiduciary responsibility to the minority and to the corporation to control the corporation in a fair, just, and equitable manner. Under the safe-harbor provision of 27A of the Securities and Exchange Act, forward-looking statements must be accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements that adequately identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ. SEC; The Securities and Exchange Commission must consider efficiency, competition, and capital formation, and failure makes promulgation of the proposed rule arbitrary and capricious. accused who expresses a desire to deal only through counsel does not waive that right merely by responding to further police-initiated questioning unless accused initiates further communication. A security interest may attach if the debtor has rights in the collateral, but there is no requirement that the debtor own the collateral.

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