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17-Mar-2020 00:05 by 5 Comments

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For example, the observatory in New Zealand, located somewhere along the 41 parallel, is within 250 km of Tanaki and the entire North Island active volcanic province.

While volatiles trapped in the remaining crustal residue are ultimately assimilated into the mantle, lighter volatiles from the crustal melt are fractionated and float up towards the surface to feed plate margin volcanoes.

To make matters worse, the reported output of any individual volcano is itself an estimate based on limited rather than complete measurement.

One may reasonably assume that in each case, such estimates are based on a representative and statistically significant quantity of empirical measurements.

Extraordinary numbers of seamounts are volcanically active (Hillier & Watts, 2007).

Moreover, active fracture zones also offer a preferred escape route for magmatic CO also finds its way into aquifers (eg.

Amundsen Scott South Pole Station appears to be well separated by 1300 km from the volcanic lineation extending along Antarctica's Pacific Coast (From the Ross Shelf to the Antarctic Peninsula), However, Antarctic volcanoes are not nearly as well mapped as those in more populated regions, such as Japan.

In any case, the strong circumpolar winds that delay mixing will inevitably concentrate Antarctica's volcanic CO emissions over the Antarctic continent, including Amundsen Station.

Then we read statements, such as this one courtesy of the USGS (2010): Scientists have calculated that volcanoes emit between about 130-230 million tonnes (145-255 million tons) of CO2 into the atmosphere every year (Gerlach, 1991).

This estimate includes both subaerial and submarine volcanoes, about in equal amounts.

The "solid earth", a term popular amongst climatologists, is a deceptive misnomer as the aesthenosphere is a deeply convecting fluid upon which flexible sheets of crust (i.e. This deeply convecting fluid tears these delicate plates apart at rift zones and crushes them together like the bonnet of a wrecked car at convergence zones.

Mountains rise out of fold belts resulting from the crumpling of plates, and where differences in plate buoyancy allow, one plate rides over another, forcing the other plate to follow the convection current into the aesthenosphere.

For example, Cape Kumukahi is located in a volcanically active province in Eastern Hawaii, while Mauna Loa Observatory is on Mauna Loa, an active volcano - both observatories within 50km of the highly active Kilauea and its permanent 3.2 Mt COpa plume.